Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Pioneer brand 25R39 is a new soft red winter wheat for 2010 fall.It has performed extremely well in both on farm plot comparisons as well as the OCCC Winter Wheat Trials.Pioneer yield data would support 25R39 as the highest yielding soft red winte wheat variety that has ever been released from Pioneers wheat breeding research.
Pioneer brand 25R56 is also a relatively new Pioneer soft red winter wheat that has also performed extremely well.Both varietes have greater genetic yield potential than Pioneer 25R47. 25R56 is a bit shorter soft red wheat than 25R39.No-til farmers preferring less residue may have a preference for 25R56 while those liking more residue or baling their straw may prefer 25R39.Both varieties should prove to offer additional yield
opportunity for the Ontario farmer.

Sunday, July 4, 2010

You will hear growers up and down the back concession roads questioning why their soybeans appear to be stalled out compared to their corn.The answer is pretty simple.The average planting date for corn this year was April 27th while the average planting date for soybeans was closer to May 25th.This big difference in planting date is showing up in the crops growth and development.I don't think its so much that anyones soybeans have stalled out as much as its a reflection in how much additional growth corn has been able to make due to the extra sun and heat it has accumulated.You must remember that when corn hits the V7 stage of growth its growth rate appears to take on an exponential rate of development.Many soybean fields on the other hand are only in their 3rd to 4th trifoliate leaf stage and their growth by comparison seems relatively slow.
The above colour difference is due to a recent herbicide application.Under certain environmental conditions there will be a lightening up in the chlorophyl concentration and a so called limy green or yellowing observed.It generally lasts for only a temporary period.
ON the other hand mottled shades of green across a field is generally an indication of different N rate availabilities caused by differences in root nodulation and Soil N mineralization.
Temperature differences across a field due to differences in residue coverage,soil texture differences,internal drainage differences, top soil depths and Organic matter differences are what makes differences in soil N mineralization and nodulation take place which in turn causes a crop to take on different shades of green colour.
The less N being made available is generally a big factor in why the crop appears lighter in colour.With time these colour differences will disappear and the crop will seemingly even out.
Then again differences in green colour across a field can be nothing more than the differences in the chlorophytic green expression that different soybean varieties can express at an early growth stage.The above photo is a good illustration of this as it is actually a soybean plot that shows a big contrast in green between one variety and another.
Growers continue to struggle with knowing just how much N is being made available to their crops from the fall and spring manure applications that they've made.Well the above piece of equipment is meant to help resolve some of those concerns.By passing through the crop at V8-V11 light sensitive chlorophyl meters can help detect the plants N status
Light sensitive meters read the chlorophyl content of the crop on the go across the field.Low chlorophyl readings will cause an increase to the application rate of 28% that is injected between the rows.On the other hand if chorophyl readings are satisfactory no additional N will be applied.

Ideally a grower needs to incorporate a few higher N rate check strips across his farm as a comparison to his standard manure applications.With repeat chorophyl meter
readings a higher degree of confidence can be generated with the manure N levels that are being achieved to support the crops growth.This can in the long run lead to better N management and better soil water quality conservation..

Friday, July 2, 2010

Every year some farmer somewhere will experience hormonal herbicide injury like that shown in these photos.
Hormonal herbicide injury is a function of rate, application timing ( crop size ) and weather both at and following the timing of application.
The knarling of a crops brace roots like that shown can lead to lodged corn if and when severe windstorms strike throughout the growing season.
I recognize that growth regulator herbicides can play an important role in providing growers residual herbicide activity BUT they certainly have to be used with a degree of caution.
If your soybeans start to express a lightened up yellow colour in areas of fields that have GOOD DRAINAGE and friable soil structure you may want to start doing some probing in the root zone.
Fields that start looking yellow this time of year in areas of fields that you wouldn't expect to see off colouring may be giving you the hint that cysts are already active.
Cysts siphon off nutrients making the plants roots and nodules less functional.As a result you will often see areas of fields begin to lighten up in colour and show more of a yellow
cast much like the above photographs depict.SAMPLING YOUR SOIL and sending it off to a lab is the surest fired means of determining whether you hve cysts or not.Many a field gets overlooked every year and its unfortunate that more growers don't take the hint to test when they see this.
Soybeans are photoperiod dependant crop.What this means is that once daylengths start to shorten after June 21 soybeans are triggered into flowering.If you have several different soybean maturities planted you will find that they will flower at different times.Your earliset maturing varieties will flower first followed bu your later maturing varieties.The key to maximizing the genetic yield potential bred into any variety is to maximize its vegetative growth before flowering occurs.What this means is that you should attempt to have 6 True Trifoliates established before flowering begins.Larger vegetative plants have more carbohydrate reserve to reduce early pod abortion when plant stresses set in.This ultimately leads to MORE YIELD.

Lets consider what it takes to make 6 True Trifoliates happen before first flowering occurs.To put it into perspective I'll use a timeline chart :

Grower A – Plants His Soybeans May 5

2 weeks to emerge – May 19 ( VE )
5 days for full development of Unifoliates – May 24 ( VC )
6 days for 1st true trifoliate ( V1) May 30 } Nodules are forming
6 days for 2nd fully developed Trifoliate ( V2 ) June 5 } Limy looking beans
6 days for 3rd fully developed trifoliate ( V3 ) June 11
6 days for 4th fully developed trifoliate ( V4 ) June 17
6 days for 5th fully developed trifoliate ( V5 ) June 23
6 days for 6th fully developed trifoliate ( V6 ) June 29

Voila! To maximize soybean yields means you have to start thinking about planting soybeans when you start planting corn.